Convergent Science

Natural Gas Engines

CONVERGE™ CFD Software is widely used to simulate the flow and combustion found within high efficiency/low emissions natural gas engines (with and without prechambers). When a prechamber is present, it can either be fueled or passive. CONVERGE™ is a valuable tool to study the mixing, efficiency, knocking, combustion, and extending the lean limit and emissions associated with modern natural gas engines.




The combustion is readily considered using the SAGE detailed chemistry solver which comes standard within CONVERGE™. With this approach, the user can specify any reaction mechanism they like, without any limit in the number of reactions or species. The multi-zone chemistry solver (implemented into CONVERGE™ via a collaboration with LLNL) can be used to decrease the run time associated with detailed chemistry simulations. Furthermore, Convergent Science Inc’s mechanism reduction technologies can eliminate unimportant reactions and species to achieve the desired balance of accuracy and run time.

Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is often used to refine the mesh in key areas (such as regions where the velocity and/or temperature gradients are large). AMR is a powerful tool to maximize accuracy while minimizing run times via placing mesh resolution where it is most needed. AMR is often used with SAGE to resolve the expanding fireball (and subsequent jet flow out of the prechamber if one exists).

With the elimination of all user meshing time and an arsenal of physical models, CONVERGE™ is a powerful tool which can assist in the design of cleaner more fuel efficient natural gas engines.



Selected Bibliography

“Field Validation of a Direct Energy Ignition System on Large Bore Natural Gas Fueled Reciprocating Engines”, Lepley. D. et al, Altronic LLC (Hoerbiger Engine Solutions), 2012 Gas Machinery Conference, Austin Texas, October 1-3 2012

“Mechanism For High Velocity Turbulent Jet Combustion From Passive Prechamber Spark Plug”, ICEF 2012-92030, Domenico Chiera, Mike Riley, Gregory J. Hampson, Proceedings of the Internal Combustion Engine Division, 2012 ASME Fall Technical Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

“A Reduced Chemical Kinetic Mechanism For CFD Simulations of High BMEP, Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines”, ICES2012-81109, ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division’s 2012 Spring Technical Conference May 6 – 9, 2012 in Torino, Italy, David Martinez-Morett, Prometheus Applied Technologies, LLC, Luigi Tozzi, Prometheus Applied Technologies, LLC and Anthony J. Marchese, Colorado State University, Department of Mechanical Engineering.

“Passive Prechamber Spark Plugs: Then and Now”, 7th Dessau Gas Engine Conference, March 24-25th, 2011, Luigi Tozzi, Prometheus Applied Technologies, LLC.

“Solutions For Meeting Low Emission Requirements In Large Bore Natural Gas Engines”, Emmanuella Sotiropoulou, Prometheus Applied Technologies, LLC, USA, David Lepley, Altronic, LLC, USA Luigi Tozzi, Ph.D., Prometheus Applied Technologies, LLC, USA, CIMAC 2013 Technical Paper #278, Shanghai, China.

“Predicting Autoignition caused by Lubricating Oil in Gas Engines”, Shinji Yasueda, Ph.D., GDEC, Japan Emmanuella Sotiropoulou, M.S., Prometheus Applied Technologies,LLC, USA, Luigi Tozzi, Ph.D., Prometheus Applied Technologies,LLC, USA, CIMAC 2013 Technical Paper #37, Shanghai, China.

“A Method For Predicting Knock In Gas Engines By Means Of Chemical Precursors From Detailed Chemistry CFD”, Emmanuella Sotiropoulou, Jessica Harral, Dr. Luigi Tozzi, Prometheus Applied Technologies, LLC, Fort Collins, CO, USA, 8th Dessau Gas Engine Conference, 2013.

“Research on Combustion Process in Cylinder of Large Bore Nature Gas Engine by Using Numerical Simulation,” XING Xiao-wei. Master’s Thesis, Shandong University. May 10, 2013.

“Redesigning the COOPER-BESSEMER® GMV to meet 2008 emissions regulations using advanced in-cylinder combustion CFD and experimental methods.” Cameron. February 6 & 7, 2013. 


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